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Europe: Vitamin K2 deficiency, tobacco equally risky for CVD


Cureus has published a new study that explores the extent that vitamin K2 deficiency is tied to cardiovascular disease (CVD).

The results showed that Vitamin K2 was inversely correlated with early CVD mortality to the same degree that tobacco use was positively correlated.

“Animal trials and human observational studies have demonstrated that Vitamin K2 deficiency (mainly the long-chain menaquinones, like MK-7) – whether it be dietary or K inhibition caused by warfarin – contributes to CVD by stiffening and calcifying coronary arteries and other vessels,” says Hogne Vik, chief medical officer with NattoPharma.

“Nutrition researchers recently recognized that Vitamin K2 deficiency is widespread and contributes to CVD.”

“The recent study, where multiple regression analysis of female and male cohort data worldwide (168 countries) have been used to relate early death from CVD with major CVD risk factors, has once more confirmed the importance of regular intake of vitamin K2 to secure a healthy CV system.”

For this trial, researchers, using publicly available sources, collected food commodity availability data and derived nutrient profiles including vitamin K2 for people from 168 countries.

They also collected female and male cohort data on early death from CVD (ages 15-64 years), insufficient physical activity, tobacco, biometric CVD risk markers, socioeconomic risk factors for CVD, and gender.

The outcome measures included:

– univariate correlations of early death from CVD with each risk factor,

– a multiple regression-derived formula relating early death from CVD (dependent variable) to macronutrient profile, vitamin K1 and K2 and other risk factors (independent variables),

– for each risk factor appearing in the multiple regression formula, the portion of CVD risk attributable to that factor, and

– similar univariate and multivariate analyses of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) (simulated from diabetes prevalence), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and cholesterol/ HDLC ratio (simulated from serum cholesterol) (dependent variables) and dietary and other risk factors (independent variables).

Results showed that female and male cohorts in countries that have vitamin K2 < 5μg per 2000 kcal/day per capita (n = 70) had about 2.2 times the rate of early CVD deaths as people in countries with > 24 μg/day of vitamin K2 per 2000 kcal/day (n = 72).

A multiple regression-derived formula relating early death from CVD to dietary nutrients and other risk factors accounted for about 50% of the variance between cohorts in early CVD death.

The attributable risks of the variables in the CVD early death formula were: too much alcohol (0.38%), too little vitamin K2 (6.95%), tobacco (6.87%), high blood pressure (9.01%), air pollution (9.15%), early childhood death (3.64%), poverty (7.66%), and male gender (6.13%).

The authors concluded that worldwide dietary vitamin K2 data derived from food commodities add much understanding to the analysis of CVD risk factors and the etiology of CVD.

Vitamin K2 in food products should be systematically quantified. Public health programs should be considered to increase the intake of vitamin K2-containing fermented plant foods such as sauerkraut, miso and natto.

“Our three-year interventional study2 confirmed that adding vitamin K2 to one’s daily intake improves arterial health and flexibility,” says Vik.

“We are excited to see additional studies confirming the dangers of K2 deficiency, and encourage the nutritional community to embrace Vitamin K2 for its unique and specific benefits.”